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线粒体嵴 I

发布时间:2023-03-15 文章来源:本站原创 阅读量:1769

    线粒体嵴mitochondrial cristae,是线粒体内膜向线粒体基质折褶形成的一种结构。线粒体嵴的形成增大了线粒体内膜的表面积,让呼吸作用的耗氧化学反应可以更快进行。嵴膜上有很多蛋白质,包括ATP合酶和各种细胞色素。

在不同种类的细胞中,线粒体嵴的数目、形态和排列方式可能有较大差别。


    Fig. 1 show partial or complete transformation of the cristae to a longitudinal orientation (Karnovsky, 1962 1963);

    Fig.2 Luft et al. (1962) have reported a case of non-thyroid hypermetabolism where a partial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation was associated with complex alterations of mitochondrial morphology (some of the cristae could be regarded as longitudinally orientated);

    Fig.3 in rats exposed to high concentrations of oxygen, mitochondria with longitudinally orientated cristae develop in the type II alveolar cells of the lung (Rosenbaum et al., 1969; Yamamoto et al., 1970) and it is known from biochemical studies that high oxygen concentrations can act as an inhibitor of several kinds of enzymatic activity, including such exclusively mitochondrial enzymes as succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase.

    图1冬季的青蛙近端肾小管的细胞色素氧化酶活性与刚捕获的夏季青蛙相比大大降低,而在这些动物中,该区域的许多线粒体显示嵴的部分或完全转变为纵向方向 (Karnovsky, 1962 1963); 

    图2 Luft等人(1962年)报道了一例非甲状腺高代谢症的病例,其中部分氧化磷酸化的解耦与线粒体形态的复杂改变相关(其中一些嵴可被视为纵向定位)

    图3在暴露于高浓度氧气的大鼠中,肺泡类型II细胞中出现了具有纵向定位嵴的线粒体(Rosenbaum等人,1969年;Yamamoto等人,1970年)。从生化研究中已知,高浓度氧气可以作为几种酶活性的抑制剂,包括如琥珀酸脱氢酶和细胞色素氧化酶等仅存在于线粒体中的酶。


    From human acute leukaemic cells. 

    Fig. I. A partially transformed mitochondrion presenting a ring-shaped profile. X 74000 

    Figs. 2 and 3. These illustrations probably depict the sequential stages of membranous whorl formation from mitochondria showing ring-shaped profiles. X 58000; X 66000

来自人类急性白血病细胞。

图1. 一个部分转变的线粒体,呈现出环形轮廓。放大倍数为74,000倍。

图2和图3。这些插图可能描绘了从呈环形轮廓的线粒体形成膜卷的顺序阶段。放大倍数分别为58,000倍和66,000倍。


    Lamellar, tubular and vesicular cristae Mitochondria show many diverse variations of form and internal structure, most of which are dependent on the type and orientation of the cristae.

    层状、管状和囊泡状的嵴 线粒体展现出许多形态和内部结构上的多样变化,其中大部分取决于嵴的类型和定位。

    有研究发现,睾丸间质细胞中既存在层状嵴也存在管状嵴。某些形态特殊的线粒体嵴由于没有ATP合酶,所以不能合成ATP。

    Fig. 1. A group of mitochondria from Amoeba proteus showing tubular cristae. There is no reason to suppose that vesicular cristae are also present because the diameter of the circular profiles (transversely cut tubular cristae) are similar to the width of the longitudinally cut tubular cristae. X 42 000

    Fig. 2. Suprarenal cortex from Cushing's syndrome. Both tubular and vesicular cristae are present. This is evidenced by the fact that some of the circular profiles are not acceptable as transverse section through tubular cristae because their diameter is much greater than the width of the longitudinally cut tubular cristae. X 35 000

图1. 来自Amoeba proteus的一组线粒体显示出管状嵴。没有理由认为囊泡状嵴也存在,因为圆形轮廓(横截切的管状嵴)的直径与纵向切割的管状嵴的宽度相似。放大倍数为42,000倍。

图2. 来自Cushing综合征的肾上腺皮质。既有管状嵴又有囊泡状嵴。这是因为一些圆形轮廓的直径远大于纵向切割的管状嵴的宽度,所以不能将它们作为横截切的管状嵴。放大倍数为35,000倍。


    Mitochondria from the adrenal cortex of a cow showing vesicular (V) cristae, some of which appear to be budding from the inner membrane of the mitochondrial envelope. Cristae which may be interpreted as lamellar (arrows) and tubular (T) are also present. X 52000

来自牛的肾上腺皮质的线粒体显示出囊泡状(V)的嵴,其中一些似乎是从线粒体包膜的内膜中发芽。同时存在着可以解释为层状(箭头)和管状(T)的嵴。放大倍数为52,000倍。


参考资料:

Ultrastructural Pathology of the Cell and Matrix

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